Malaria is a life-threatening, mosquito-borne parasitic disease that affects humans and other animals. It manifests itself as an intermittent and remittent fever caused by a protozoan parasite (Plasmodium genus) that invades the red blood cells. Before the Plasmodium parasite was discovered, people thought the disease was caused by bad air, (“mal” and “aria” from Medieval Italian) and associated it with marshes and low-lying swamps. The parasite is transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes in many tropical and subtropical regions. There are more than 400 different species of Anopheles mosquito; around 30 of them are vectors for malaria. There are 5 parasite species that cause malaria in humans, and 2 of these species – Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax – pose the greatest threat to human life. While malaria is both preventable and curable it still remains one of the deadliest diseases on the planet. Indeed, it is thought to have killed more than half the people who have ever lived. In 2018 there were over 228 million cases with an estimated death toll of 405,000, two-thirds of who were children. A child still dies every two minutes from this preventable and treatable disease and it keeps more children out of school in Africa than any other disease. It strains health systems, puts pressure on household incomes, and slows economic growth. Over 100 countries have eliminated malaria and the global ambition is to eradicate malaria within a generation.