Poliomyelitis (polio) is a highly infectious viral disease, which mainly affects young children. The virus is transmitted by person-to-person spread mainly through the faecal-oral route or, less frequently, by contaminated water or food, where it multiplies in the intestine, from where it can invade the nervous system and can cause paralysis. Initial symptoms of polio include fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, stiffness in the neck, and pain in the limbs. In a small proportion of cases, the disease causes paralysis, which is often permanent. There is no cure for polio, it can only be prevented by immunization. The world has made remarkable progress in reducing the incidence of polio worldwide and it has been eliminated from all but two countries (Afghanistan and Pakistan). The world is close to global eradication but the progress is fragile and requires unwavering commitment. If we fail to eradicate the disease, the world could begin to see up to 200,000 new cases annually within the next ten years.